Alveoli The alveoli are little sacs of air which are found in the lungs at the end of the alveolar ducts. Diaphragm The diaphragm is a large sheet of muscle that runs below the lungs in the lower ribs.
The main job of the lungs is to extract carbon dioxide, a form of waste that is made during metabolism from the body and bring in oxygen to provide us with energy. Surfactant reduces the surface tension and therefore makes the lungs more compliantor less stiff, than if it were not there. The superior part of the pharynx is a tube that connects the nasal cavity to an area behind the soft palate of the mouth.
The pharynx also plays a role in speech. This state should remain constant until the body has a demand for increased oxygen and carbon dioxide levels due to increased exertion, most likely caused by physical activity. This allows a movement similar to the "pump handle effect", but in this case it is called the bucket handle movement.
Assignment on respiratory system
When you have completed the assignment, submit it to your instructor for correction and feedback. The sinuses serve as a resonance chamber for the voice. The tract is divided into an upper and a lower respiratory tract. Plants also have respiratory systems but the directionality of gas exchange can be opposite to that in animals. There is, however, a complication that increases the volume of air that needs to be inhaled per minute respiratory minute volume to provide the same amount of oxygen to the lungs at altitude as at sea level. Respiratory Zone — In contrast to the conducting zone, the respiratory zone includes structures that are directly involved in gas exchange. It floats on the surface of the thin watery layer which lines the insides of the alveoli, reducing the water's surface tension. Abdominal breathing is also called diaphragmatic respiration. At the summit of Mt. To convert to mm Hg, multiply by 7. All the ribs slant downwards from the rear to the front as shown in Fig. It's main function in the respiratory system is to provide a pathway for air to flow in and out of the lungs for respiration.
The major organs of the respiratory system function primarily to provide oxygen to body tissues for cellular respiration, remove the waste product carbon dioxide, and help to maintain acid-base balance. On each side, the intranasal space communicates with a series of neighbouring air-filled cavities within the skull the paranasal sinuses and also, via the nasolacrimal ductwith the lacrimal apparatus in the corner of the eye.
Thus the animal is provided with a very special "portable atmosphere", whose composition differs significantly from the present-day ambient air.
However, as one rises above sea level the density of the air decreases exponentially see Fig.
Respiratory system in humans
It is made from skeletal muscle and has the ability to contract on a volunteer basis. Pulmonary alveoli E. The respiratory system likewise assists us to develop and smell noise. To convert to mm Hg, multiply by 7. This is termed eupnea. During inhalation the air is warmed and saturated with water vapor during its passage through the nose passages and pharynx. Nasal Conchae Nasal conchae are small and thin bony elements of the upper nasal cavity. Seen from outside the body the lifting of the clavicles during strenuous or labored inhalation is sometimes called clavicular breathing , seen especially during asthma attacks and in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Alveoli The alveoli are little sacs of air which are found in the lungs at the end of the alveolar ducts. Plants also have respiratory systems but the directionality of gas exchange can be opposite to that in animals. If this switch occurs relatively abruptly, the hyperpnea at high altitude will cause a severe fall in the arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide, with a consequent rise in the pH of the arterial plasma. Most of the organs of the respiratory system help to distribute air, but only the tiny, grape-like alveoli and the alveolar ducts are responsible for actual gas exchange.
The conducting zone of the respiratory system includes the organs and structures not directly involved in gas exchange.
based on 17 review