Northern Congressmen believed that providing black men with suffrage would be the most rapid means of political education and training. While many blacks took an active part in voting and political life, and rapidly continued to build churches and community organizations, white Democrats and insurgent groups used force to regain power in the state legislatures, passing laws that effectively disfranchised most blacks and many poor whites in the South.
James Hemphill said: "It will be hard to persuade the freedom shriekers that the American citizens of African descent are obtaining their rights. Early Supreme Court rulings around the turn of the century upheld many of these new Southern constitutions and laws, and most blacks were prevented from voting in the South until the s.
Byit was attacked by Southern whites for organizing blacks against their former masters. Radicals strongly opposed slavery during the war and after the war distrusted ex-Confederates, demanding harsh policies for the former rebels, and emphasizing civil rights and voting rights for freedmen recently freed slaves.
This Congress took control of Reconstruction. As a result, bypolicymakers in Washington had the nearly impossible task of southern Reconstruction.
But the belated efforts of the white Southerners to treat the freedmen more fairly under the law came too late. Brown, who had been the wartime governor of Georgia.
Although the federal government had confiscated some Confederate lands and given them to freed slaves, it never planned to do this on a massive scale. For instance, the Fourteenth Amendment, whose principal drafter was John Bingham, was designed to put the key provisions of the Civil Rights Act into the Constitution.